In 2003, the Japanese rebuilt Princess Margaret Hospital (outpatients weekdays 0800-1100) on Funafuti to replace a building dating from 1978. The hospital has a pharmacist and dentist, but on the outer islands there are only "dressers."
Hepatitis, cholera, dengue fever, and tuberculosis are occasional problems (the last major cholera outbreak was in 1990). Cuts can turn septic quickly, so one should pack and use an antiseptic such as hydrogen peroxide. All medications are in short supply in Tuvalu and you should bring along anything you might need.
Recommended (but not compulsory) vaccinations for those who will be spending much time here include typhoid fever and immune globulin or the hepatitis A vaccine.